Too big for your britches…

Too big for your britches…
Empower your employees, don't rule over them
Empower your employees, don’t rule over them

Some companies are complex, highly diverse workplaces with a lot of people to manage.  A host of different departments to oversea a multitude of tasks.  You can’t negate the fact that companies and their departments, their divisions have territorial tendencies.

Cue Elf:  Buddy (Will Ferrell) in mail room.

Buddy (Will Ferrell) in the mail room.
Buddy (Will Ferrell) in the mail room.

That scene from Elf and others, hint at the reality that is our workforce and its continued hierarchical, top down approach.  Very rare is it a company that has a bottom up approach.  You can say it, you can articulate it, you can communicate that you do, but if it isn’t readily apparent, it is all just glossy shine on the outside and misery on the inside.  Case in point.  I won’t mention any names or companies.  A few years ago, I was with a host of friends enjoying a welcome respite from the day-to-day.  Eventually, our conversation turned to work.  This person was a bit down in the dumps, and I asked why?  They hadn’t received the commission they normally received during the holidays.  This was during the hard time of the 2006-2009 recession. I asked them to explain.  Apparently, during the previous get together by all staff for their annual party, the company had to downsize the festivities.  Usually, everyone got a bonus, even those non-sales jobs.  The previous year the company decided to discontinue these bonuses to all of their employees, except their sales staff.  Someone found out, and complained.  Long story short.  Someone felt cheated.   A person who didn’t work in sales and didn’t receive a commission went to the powers that be and called them on it.  Times were tough too and the company decided maybe it was better not to give anything out.  I asked a few probing questions of my friend.  Needless to say, we didn’t talk for a few weeks after it.

I’ve worked in an industry for regular hourly pay, salary, and salary and bonuses.  More than likely it was a turkey at Thanksgiving and Christmas.  Sometimes a gift card.  Not much, but I was grateful.  It helped.  All the Christmas parties were the same.  A few had raffles of cool prizes.  But our management staff wanted any bonuses or extra pay to be equal for all.  We worked as a team in hotels.  Everyone is rewarded for their hard work.  It may not have been much, but it was something. Sometimes a word or your name on a plaque got us through the hard times.  So back to my friend.

I asked the person to put their feet in the shoes of the individual in that ‘mail room’.  They may not have the education you have or the experience or the job title, but they do the same hard work as everyone else.  Interruption by my friend, saying that their job wasn’t equal.  No, they aren’t equal, but they still do hard work.  Define work.  What is work?  What is their job duties?  Could you do their job?  Do you know how to do their job?  They do their job for minimum wage or just a bit above.  Shouldn’t they be rewarded for their devotion just as much as you.  They came back with the argument that their job captured revenues for the business that allowed those in the mail room to be paid so that they could put food on the table, pay their bills.  Yes, I agreed.  Yet, if they didn’t do their job or aid you in doing yours, you couldn’t close on a deal with the delivery of that parcel with important signed contracts.  You couldn’t do your job without the delivery of office supplies.  You couldn’t do your job without them running their butts around town, when you had to get a contract out yesterday.  You couldn’t do your job if they didn’t fulfill that order made.  The two jobs are linked.

They again argued about working hard and about revenues.  I asked, “Is it?  Are revenues the only important detail of a company?”

The look they gave me could cut glass in two.

I smiled.  “It isn’t always about the bottom line.  It isn’t always about making a profit.  Sure profits are important and we do need to pay bills, but we cannot get to that profit without thinking and addressing the process and people who get us to that profit.  If one cog in the wheel isn’t working up to its effective and efficient potential, the system slows down and could possibly stagnate.  It could cease to exist.  Your job is linked to the way that mail room, those people feel and work.  Think you are far superior to them, that your job is more important, then you’ve lost sight of the reason to be in business.”

“How is that?”  They snorted.

“This is about the relationships you make and continue.  This is about long-standing relationships today and tomorrow.”

“Sure my customers are important.”

“Then who are your customers?”

“Huh?”

“Who are your stakeholders?”

“My customers.”

Holding off the desire to face plant my cheeks in my palms, I continued.  “We could go on and on asking the same question.  You do not understand your customers, your stakeholders.  This is about relationships.  If we do not create, nurture and maintain those relationships, our business will stagnate and decline.  This is about all of your stakeholders.  One of your stakeholders is that person in the mail room.  They have a vested interest in the health of the firm.  Not just the sales person that makes sales calls.  Did you ever ask that person in the mail room how they feel?  Did you ever say hi, greet them on your way into work?  Say good-bye on your way out?  Did you ever stop and ask them about their families?”

They hesitated, and I had my answer.  No or very rarely.

“Did you ever think that they are just as grateful as you are for the job they have?  That they can work for a company that even considers giving them a party and a bonus.  Not every company so rewards their devoted employees.”

As the book stipulates:

I think that is something else with the people-process culture: . . . you get to know people. The people get to know each other” ( J. Cernohous, personal communication, July 25, 2014).
Kersten EdD SPHR, Jeanette; La Venture EdD, Kelly. The Human Factor to Profitability: Building a People-Centered Culture for Long-Term Success (Kindle Locations 658-659). River Grove Books. Kindle Edition.

And the discussion went on.  What am I saying?

Employees should be engaged in their workplace.  That they need to feel and be a part of that team.  Not stranded in some oasis, ignored.  Again, I argue for that point that all of us see and process information differently.  We all have a unique point of reality.  Sometimes the finer details are uncovered with fresh eyes.  Don’t discount the person on the front lines.  You need to consider their input.

 

 

More to attractions than meets the eye…

More to attractions than meets the eye…
Gettysburg Civil War Monument
Mom on her honeymoon at Gettysburg Civil War National Park

Attractions have a lot of complicated parts, both intangible and tangible. They have a wider impact that many realize.  A whole mess of questions in a complicated world.

Attractions evolve from the three environments:  socio-cultural, economic, and physical (natural and man-made).  They take many forms and trying to define them can be a delicate journey.  They are a composite of activities that the tourist can partake in and use. Attractions can ‘attract’ a host of visitors, but more than likely it is not homogeneous.  Something that can’t be generalized across all markets.  More than likely, a niche market will be their primary source of revenues.

Motivation is tricky to decipher and study.  The reasons drawing, pushing and pulling tourist to a site is as particular to one person as another.  Case in point my mother and our annual trips to historic sites.  Deep down I don’t think she liked visiting Williamsburg or Gettysburg or other historical site.  I don’t know.  She’s never been a fan of hot weather, preferring spring and fall for travel.  The beach to the oppressive heat and humidity of the countryside.  Maybe I don’t know what she likes.  And therein lies the conundrum of tourist researchers.  Do we know who our visitors are, and what they like?  Do we really know what attractions to build or create for tourists?

Mom at Atlantic City
Mom at Atlantic City

Attractions have many purposes.  They are a composite of a host of activities and services that cater to a varied population of tourists.  Take away any resource within that matrix of services and the system fragments.  That fragmentation can be induced by tourist as well as the industry itself.  Attractions are part of a greater value chain.

Take away one and suffering occurs.  Take away the primary reason for tourist to visit, and the whole system suffers.  The impacts are far-reaching.  The multiplier effect drops in function and revenues do not circulate through the many layers.

Once an attraction changes, matures, stagnates or declines, tourist motivations will shift and change.  They will choose something else.  And then the area in which it is embedded spirals downward and declines.  And unless this erosion is stopped, halted, the host community will continue to suffer.  There will be no reason to go to the area.  Thus, schools can’t be built or remodeled, hospitals will close, services will pull out of the area leaving a shell of a community.

I’ve seen it first hand.  My hometown in Pennsylvania suffers from the decline and closure of industry.  Relying on tourism for most of its dollars.

Johnstown, PA
View from the Incline Plane of Johnstown, PA

Johnstown, PA is an old town, settled in 1770.  The only reason people would have a reason to visit there now is because of a natural disaster back in 1889.  The Great Flood was the largest man-made disaster up until 9/11. The event killed 2200+ people and leveled the prosperous steel town.  Now, since steel has pulled out, the city is a shell of its former self.  Still a beautiful place to live, but survival hinges on the National Monument to the Flood as well as several key events throughout the year.

Thunder in the Valley is a motorcycle rally that happens every June.  Last year, 2016 was one of the best turnouts because of the beautiful weather and increase in services available.  As reported in the Tribune:

When the weather cooperates, the four-day event has drawn as many as 200,000 people to the area – and this weekend was likely no exception, said Lisa Rager, executive director of the Greater Johnstown/Cambria County Convention & Visitors Bureau.

Motorcylces line Johnstown, PA streets during Thunder in the Valley
Motorcycles line Johnstown, PA streets during Thunder in the Valley

That is a lot of people traveling to a small town in southwestern Pennsylvania for three or more days.  To a town that has limited resources to host 200,000 people over three days.  Maybe it does.  Maybe I don’t know the exact carrying capacity of the area or the extent of services.  Yet, think of the revenues generated from a host of sources.  How many jobs are created just for that weekend?  How much revenue is generated from event sales?  And then that revenue is circulated through the community.

Budweiser Clydesdales
Budweiser Clydesdale at Thunder in the Valley

Therefore, attractions are classified as something that generates some form of revenue.  They sell an entrance fee or cluster a host of services around it to generate revenue.  Take it away and revenues are lost.  Some people do not understand that concept.  What the community loses.

And sometimes that happens when motivations shift over time and choice is directed elsewhere.

Sometimes we lose attractions through other means.  How will the Caribbean rebuild after the devastating hurricanes?  How much will the islands alone lose from the loss of cruise ship revenues?  A host of questions.

A loss of revenue for the catchment area means a loss of revenues to circulate through the system.  A loss of future development.  Attractions can be the reason some businesses are drawn to the area.  This past summer I was at home during the annual Thunder.  One of my favorite motorcycle companies had heard about Thunder and was making its first appearance.

Ducati Logo
Ducati Logo ©Ducati

Ducati had come to town.  I would have loved to have visited the Rally but personal plans got in the way.  Yet, with such a famous brand drawn to this event, others followed.  The weather dampened the festival for the first day, but more than made up for it the last two, giving Ducati and others the chance to showcase their products.  I’m sure Harley Davidson enjoyed the friendly competition.  Throughout the 19 years this event has been held in Johnstown, it has evolved to what it is today.  An attraction that is just not for bikers.  It caters to a host of different types of tourists.  And that is important if the event is to continue.

I try not to be political in class or here.  But I can’t go without addressing certain issues effecting tourism today.  The destruction of certain attractions must be discussed if we are having an honest conversation about tourism.  The recent destruction of Civil War Monuments and the potential for more changes in that landscape.  Try to see and envision all sides.  Try to understand the impacts of all points of reality.  The total effect this has on the host community.

Dad at the Alabamians Memorial at Gettysburg during honeymoon.
Dad at the Alabamians Memorial at Gettysburg during honeymoon.

Tourism has a history.  Tourism exist in time and space.  The reasons for attractions and construction of attractions is particular to each stakeholder given that time and space.  The reasons for travel have varied through the generations that have engaged in the activity.  It has its positive and negative connotations. Good and bad.  The tourism landscape has countless stories to tell to explain the history of civilization.  Tourism is an action and behavior.  Tourists engage with a variety of landscapes.  Host communities rely on tourists for revenues.  If the main reason for travel is gone, people will shift their actions and behaviors.  They will go elsewhere.

We are all stewards of this landscape.  This landscape needs all sides to understand the implications to all three environments and participants.  All voices must be heard and considered.

A host of questions must be asked before action is taken.  We must be sympathetic and empathetic to the multiplier effect.  And the multiplier effect is not just revenues any more.  It is more.  Again, I stress that all voices must be heard and considered.

Defining People Process Culture ~ Organizational Culture.

Defining People Process Culture ~ Organizational Culture.
Organizational Culture by dessinauteur at Flickr
https://flic.kr/p/p2KrM7

Perhaps, our discussion on PPC should begin with trying to define the concept of organizational culture. Heck, we could use this for all of my classes as well, because inherent within each course should be an understanding of organizations, culture, leadership and so forth.

After reading and researching about PPC in preparation for my interview for the Chair position, I found common threads of thought in one big giant quilt.  It’s complicated and intricate.  One step at a time.

With every body of knowledge, there is a history.  A host of people contributing to a greater whole.  No one has the cornerstone on that history.  Each company, industry, person has an experience, and what emerges from that history are common practices and theories.  The line of thought, if you research your own companies as I have asked, may have shades of PPC within it already.  If you want to be an effective leader, you need to research other companies within and outwit your own career aspirations.  You need to study people and processes.  Become a avid reader!

Over the course of history, organizations have viewed work in various forms.  I’m not going to rehash that history, but know that owners, leaders, supervisors, companies, etc, have all viewed organizational culture from different vantage points.  Different points of reality.  Good and bad.

A company can be broken down into two aspects.  Tangible and intangible.  Products and people.

Organizational culture is about studying the dynamics of the people within an organization.  How they get things down.  How they deliver on promises.  How they work together to achieve objectives for a broader goal.

How do organizations value their people and those that complete tasks.  What is rewards?  How do people value each other and the job they do.  Value takes on a whole new meaning.

Lui and Cervenka in Kersten and La Venture (2015, p. vii)1 lend credit to the argument that all people, employees, and associates have an ‘intrinsic value’.  Simply put, what Bob Cervenka, as reported in Kersten and Laventure, stipulated that success hinges on the people of any organization.  It’s true.  Walt Disney knew back in 1950s that his vision of an amusement park wouldn’t be a success without the ‘cast’ members doing their part to create the illusion.  He wouldn’t be able to develop cutting edge rides without pushing the imagineers to do their best.  Even when such processes hadn’t been invented (think animatronics).  Yet, Epcot in Disney World, the last project that Walt helped to design, almost didn’t get built because of Disney’s untimely death.  He had a certain vision and shared most of that vision with his employees. It wasn’t enough just to share that information.

Lui and Cervenka stress that information is a key variable that must be shared.  Thus, the root of success is about communication. But is that the complete picture?

Information has two sides.  Tangible and intangible.  Seen and not. Information is one of the drivers of the tourism industry, besides money and promises.  At any time during the process, the dynamic function that is tourism, information can be accessed and used by any and all stakeholders.  It is something that is always being created, and utilized to create or do something.  Communication is a constant action, but not always part of the process.  Yes, information can be assumed.  Misdirection can occur.

Yet, what about innovation and creativity.  It isn’t just about information sharing, well-being,  and communication (p. viii).  Disney had a creative mindset.  He fostered creativity and innovation.  Innovation is dynamic.  Organizations must be adaptable to internal and external stimuli.  Organizations are organic, active entities, constantly churning and thinking.  If they don’t, they will stagnate.  If they do not step out of that stagnation moment, reinvent, rejuvenate in some form, they will die within the product life cycle.

Disney did have one flaw.  The total communication of his ideas.  Much was left unsaid at the end.  His unique energy died with him.  Many have said he was the driving force behind the concepts, the force to get projects down.  He saw beyond the walls, beyond the confines of a theme park and married a host of threads together.  Not many can do what he did.  Steve Jobs couldn’t.  Bill Gates can’t.

Once Disney was gone, uncertainty set in and the value of the Disney brand suffered.  Disney created a competitive advantage above other similar products because of his unique, innovative methods of park management.  The energy fizzled out for a time being, and they realized that they couldn’t really execute Epcot as Walt desired. They had to go back to the drawing board because of the dynamic nature of creation.  Therefore, there has to be some legacy of that vision.  Yet, a mainstay for Disney as well as other companies has been well established core values.  A mission and vision to set a foundation.

So, it is not just an investment in a product but the people behind that product.  It is an investment of time in developing relationships with all stakeholders as well as their creative abilities (yes, even customers).  Everyone can contribute.  Just look at the Ritz Carlton brand.  They empower their employees to make decision that will affect customer service by giving them a monetary stipend to handle guest complaints.  Managers and other senior leaders hope it never gets to that complaint level with the idea of training ‘ladies and gentlemen’ to serve ‘ladies and gentlemen’.  I argue then that I want all of my employees to take an active part in helping my customers and all my stakeholders craft their experience.  So a host of variables must be articulated and identified in order to have well function culture.

Functions of Management
Functions of Management

The aforementioned authors discuss trust.  Any relationship is built on trust.  In tourism, we call these “moments of truth”.  And not just from a customer standpoint.  Moments of truth are built on promises, articulated and not.  We are making a ‘contract’ with our stakeholders.  We promise to give them something for a return on that promise.  More than just information.  More than just money in a paycheck.  We are establish physical, psychological and social dynamic exchange.  Competition to hire and retain talent has been the bane of most industries, especially in tourism.  Bloome, Van Rheede and Tromp (2013) highlight the hardships within the hospitality sector of the tourism industry in the retention of ideal employees.  Psychological contracts are just as important as other forms.  Expectations before, during and after hiring have to be addressed 2.  How do we set a value on our employees?  How do we know how much their worth?  Lui and Cervenka hint at this established with compensation.  Yet, they fail to recognize the factor that value happens well before hiring that employee that Bloome, Van Rheede and Tromp conclude.  Companies need to take an active participation in the education of potential employees.  The people process culture is an extension beyond the confines of a firm, but to the society in which it operates.  Not after the fact, before.  Proactive, not reactive.  Not result focus entirely, but before that point.

Do not limit the power of benefit.  So, this may be an argument for the power of potentiality.  How do we put a value on potential?

Action-Reaction-Result Loop
Action-Reaction-Result Loop

Too long we have looked for a means to an end.  We are waiting for something to happen.  We have to look before that point.  We have to recognize the action-reaction-result loop.  That for every action there is a reaction that leads to a result.  Those actions happen at any time.  A proactive stance in business in all of its processes may or may not aid you in developing a strong, organic structure.

So we must understand all of our stakeholders at any time in the given dynamic world that is our organization.

Culture is yet to be defined and that is for next time.

 

 

 

 

 

Footnotes

1. Kersten, J., La Venture, Kelly, Lui, Katherine E. Welch, & Cervenka, Debbie. (2015). The human factor to profitability : Building a people-centered culture for long-term success / Jeanette Kersten, EdD, SPHR, and Kelly La Venture, EdD ; with a foreword by Kat Lui, PhD, and Debbie Cervenka. (First ed.).
2. Blomme, R., Van Rheede, A., & Tromp, D. (2009). The hospitality industry: an attractive employer? An exploration of students’ and industry workers’ perceptions of hospitality as a career field. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 21(2), 6-14. doi:10.1080/10963758.2009.10696939

People Process Culture (PPC): What it is and why study…

People Process Culture (PPC): What it is and why study…

So, this year I’ve taken on the duties of the People Process Culture Endowed Chair here at Stout.  I am looking forward to delivering on previous contributions to organizational behavior as well as some aspects that are pertinent in today’s global society.  Basically, developing the ‘service heart’ concept.  So, what is PPC and why study a concept?  It isn’t new the idea of addressing the needs of all your stakeholders.  The concept has been around in my industry of tourism and hospitality since man traveled afar to find food.  Pretty old.  We just haven’t address solid nomenclature till the 20th century.

The first real historical incidence in my industry of this concept that I can find to date is Delmonico’s of NYC.  My first encounter with this type of philosophy in a practical sense was with Marriott.  The first time it is part of the core values of the company and written down was when the founders of the company, Bill and Alice Marriott, opened their root beer stand in 1927 in Washington, DC.

Yet, the simplicity of the concept, the beauty of it, is breaking down that beauty to its complexity and reconstructing it to understand that brilliance.  It might not always be the same as the original because relationships have these nuances, but there must be core values that are consistently apparent.  What is that quotation from The Last Samuri at the end of the movie:

Katsumoto: The perfect blossom is a rare thing. You could spend your life looking for one, and it would not be a wasted life. [With his dying breath] Perfect… They are all… perfect..

A rose
A rose…

What is Katsumoto trying to convey?  Perfection doesn’t really exist because everything holds perfection.  There is a sense of perfection.  Now don’t jump to conclusions.  Perfections have flaws and are really never perfect because everything is inherently flawed.  That is the beauty of life.  Embrace that perfection/imperfection, that flaw in all of us and see it for what it is.  Be open and receiving.  Okay, coming down from my higher position, down the stairs and taking a seat (think Socrates here).

Organizational theory, PPC is important to study because business is about managing not just the tangibles, but the intangibles.  The human element.  All stakeholders and that interaction.  It is dynamic, ever-changing, and always in flux.

I have always loved puzzles.  Why am I bringing this up?  Well, understanding about the interplay of interactions between individuals is a unique puzzle.

Let me explain this illustration.  Bear with me.

You go to the store to buy a puzzle.  If I don’t know anything about this puzzle or its degree of complexity, I examine the box more closely.  I look at the number of pieces, the intricacy of the picture and try to make a decision.  Maybe, I buy it on aesthetics alone.  I am really into cool castles at the moment, so maybe I’m looking for something towards my interests.   I want to find one that I desire.  One that tugs at the hedonistic value.  The outside of the box presents a really pleasing picture of a place I want to visit or be a part of.

Cue Forrest Gump:

“Life is like a box of chocolates.  You never know what you are going to get.”

Now lets tie that into organizations and perhaps, searching for that best employer.  Working for that right firm.  On the outside everything that is presented to you is a very pleasing picture.  All bright and shiny.  You’ve heard great things about this company.  You’ve done some research and examined some public documents.  Yet, you are on the outside looking in…not until you delve further into that company will you understand the depth of complexity.  The tangible and intangible.  The products, the processes, and the human factor.

You open the box.

Are there instructions to understand the complexity?  Sure on the front.  You have a picture of how it is supposed to be. But there is nothing on how to start or how to navigate the waters.  Everything you view is from your own vantage point, your point of reference, your point of view.  That point of reality has been shaped, morphed, changed, or reshaped with experience.  Don’t discount your experience.  Life is an experience, good and bad.  It is how you use that experience that is also important.  Learn from it, strive to overcome challenges.

Cue my own mantra:

“Challenge life, don’t let life challenge you.”

In real live, you have submitted a resume and gained an interview.  You run the hurdles and are offered a job.  You accept, and everything is right in the world.  That day has come, you pack your lunch, and hit the bricks. Open the door and walk in. And faced with a new environment. Somewhat daunting and scary.  Change always comes with fear and joy.  You’ve left the ordinary world you knew, and crossed a threshold into another realm.  Embrace it.

The pile of pieces of the puzzle.
The pile of pieces of the puzzle.an interview.

The goal of the box is to reconstruct the pieces into some sense of organization to recreate the picture.  The objectives are the plan of attack to reach that goal.  Facing a mountain of uncertainty, the pile of pieces is the first challenge.  Where to start?  Every puzzle is different. Yet, more importantly, at this point, what questions do I ask in order to understand how to approach this project before me.

The first day is introduction into your new reality.  This isn’t university anymore Toto.  It sinks in possibly as you are indoctrinated into this new social system, this new community that you might just have a limited awareness.

Set aside now the tangible, the products.  As stated before, there are two avenues to follow, one readily apparent with some degree of mysticism (the production process of tangibles), and the other that has more of mysterious element–the human interplay.  A host of personalities to decipher and understand.  How do I make sense of this complexity?  For some, this reality comes with a greater sense of diversity that they have ever encountered before.

Whoa, hold on.  This isn’t diversity.  Not even close.  This is so much more.  Wait, be patient students, we’ll get to this in a bit.

As a professor and researcher, I am aware of the craft of my job.  I study it.  I pick it apart to gain knowledge.  I had an epiphany in my early thirties that I had a limited awareness about life, both personal and professional.  I had to set aside what I thought and deconstruct my known puzzle.  Those pieces weren’t enough.  It never is…

Look for that Obi-Wan among the multitude of faces and become his or her apprentice.  Ask someone who is successful in that job that may have been hired in the last two years and find out who that person is, because you will need a guide.  Sometimes you have to go it alone with just your gut and intuition.  (How do I know what is right and wrong?)

Game of Thrones, Oathbreaker, 2016
Game of Thrones, Oathbreaker, 2016

Cue Game of Thrones, Ser Davos conversing with Jon Snow after he awakens from the dead:

Davos Seaworth: You clean up as much of the shit as you can.
Jon Snow: I don’t know how to do that. I thought I did, but… I failed.
Davos Seaworth: Good. Now go fail again.

Life and work doesn’t always come with instructions.  Sometimes you have to take a leap of faith and try.  Some approach the puzzle and just start, uncovering the patterns along the way.  Others, before even starting, study and look for patterns.  I have always adhered to visualization techniques and using my imagination to envision different scenarios.  I am a big fan of using scenarios when teaching.  Hence, why I like to do projects.

Is there a right way or a wrong way?

When faced with developing the light bulb, Edison didn’t get it the first try.  It took him more than 500+ to get to the finished product.  What did he learn, what was his saying and someone else…”I found 500+ ways how not to invent a light bulb.”

Sometimes you jump right in with great enthusiasm and you get stuck at a point.  A curse slips past your lips as you realize you need to start again.  That this road is not the one you should have taken.  Hopefully, it isn’t too bad that you can’t recover, because in any industry, especially my own recovery from disgruntled stakeholders could mean the ability to capture or not, revenue, today or in the future.  And in tourism, hospitality, compared to other industries revenue isn’t like manufacturing, cars, construction, etc.  We have a 24 hour perishability.  If we don’t capture revenues within a 24 hour period, it is permanently lost.  We can’t gain it back.

We want repeat business and loyalty.  And not just for revenues.  Want want to create a family.

That disgruntled stakeholder might be your employee.  How do we create longevity?  How do we create a working environment where people love to come to work and want to be there?

So, for some this process, this exchange, this dynamic interplay of people is highly important.  Be prepared for anything.  As I tell my students, you have to be prepared for anyone that walks through that door.  You can’t think for a moment that everyone is the same.  Therefore, you have to ask questions of your employees, your peers, your mentors, your managers, your CEOs, and yourself what you should or shouldn’t do.  That is how you develop intuition.  Always asking questions.

Then you can find a path to put the puzzle together.  Not everyone will accomplish this goal the same, so you have to be prepared for everyone’s point of reality.  You all have goals and objectives, even common ones to get to the end result.   It is wondrous to see how this happens.  It is fantastic to learn how this happens. 

The more knowledge you gain from studying PPC, organizational behavior and from your experience, the stronger leader and manager you will become.  The finished product will be fantastic and everyone will love to be in the same place.

I finish this post with two quotes from two football coaches I greatly admire.  Vince Lombardi and Joe Paterno.

“Leadership is not just one quality, but rather a blend of many qualities; and while no one individual possesses all of the needed talents that go into leadership, each man can develop a combination to make him a leader.” ~ Vince Lombardi

“The will to win is important, but the will to prepare is vital.” ~ Joe Paterno
Meld them together and you have one of the answers to that epiphany I had in my thirties.  It was always about me up to that point in my life, and I wasn’t progressing as my peers.  I was unhappy in my daily life.  I looked for rewards before the end of that current journey.  I wanted something concrete before I had even created it.  I wasn’t a true leader.  I’m not even one now.  I still don’t have all of the skills or talents and probably never will.  But preparation is vital for me, for anyone to be better.  And studying this process as well as others is that preparation.  It will help you attain that combination to be a leader or even just a member of a group that is trying to achieve something.
Enjoy the semester!

Revisiting Value Chain…

Revisiting Value Chain…

Understanding tourism goods and services can be deceiving. We can articulate that they have a tangible and intangible divergence. It is when we get into that thinking on higher and complex terms that it becomes blurred, complex and competitive. One can argue that a tourism’s tangible products cannot be consumed until the prospective tourist evaluates an intangible depiction or representation. No one can argue that more and more people are booking travel and tourism products using mobile technology 1. I am not certain that all tourist see the complex inter-relationships that exist between all sectors of our industry. Or do they even think about it. Yet, what about the students in my classes, those studying tourism. How should we envision this complexity?

cobweb

It is an intricate web of connections. Some strong, some strained, some thin filaments that aren’t as apparent as others. Murky waters indeed. As we have discussed, value is not so easily deciphered, applied or understood. But it is a value chain of products that are aligned and transformed into an experience when packaged together. Validation of the wealth of that package, tangible and intangible value, occurs with use. If we have met and exceeded expectations developed before, during and after the trip and travel process, then we have delivered on each contact point during those moments of truths. And moments of truths profoundly affect the exchange process.  If those connections are strong, those cogs in a wheel working in tandem, the industry will have a strong presence even in a highly competitive environment.  They will stand out and be a first choice among a host of consumers.

Tourism is a communication industry.

We communicate to every stakeholder that has a vested interest in our products and services. (Moment of Epiphany: That moment when something hits you, whispers in your ear of understanding…just happened. More on that later)

Communication is a constant throughout the process, even if it happens behind the scenes or we don’t think it is even occurring. Information is exchanged and processed during those moments.

What we do during those moments of interaction can be vital for capturing interest, converting interest to purchases, and then use.

We need to create linkages among all those involved in the process.

That is a value chain.

 

 


Footnotes

1. 70 travel & tourism statistics to know about in 2016 [Trends Report]by Lucy Fuggle

Revisiting Value…

Revisiting Value…

Value is that odd little derivative that we really can’t pin down adequately enough.  We can skim right close to the edge, but never acquire the true depth.  Value is odd that way.  The old formula stipulates that it is benefits of doing something minus the cost of doing something.  And one of my students in my HT 140 class asked a beauty of a question the other day.  In her entrepreneurial class they speak of perceived value.  Where does that fit in?  (I can’t tell you how my spirit was dancing about when this happened.  I saw the light bulb hovering over her head and becoming brighter).

I told her yes value is a perception.  Everyone in the class, even though you may have commonality among the variables that describe your life, your point of view is uniquely your own.  It is accessing that information and utilizing it to its fullest that allows me to create an experience that will meet your expectations.  But I am getting ahead of myself.

Rewind.

I constantly reiterate that anyone that wants to work in the tourism industry, that works in hospitality, in any facet must be prepared for anyone that walks through our door.  That means being prepared before, during and after decision-making.  Choices are made at different times for different reasons.  Purchases can be made at any time.  Doesn’t mean that those choices will be ultimately acted upon, but you have to be prepared.

Information is critical.

The foundation of value is information.  One of the drivers of our industry.

We are all sales people in our industry.  We are always in that mode and if not, should be.  Anyone can sell a product, even the housekeeper up on the floors of hotel cleaning rooms.  They have to be cognizant of the product they work with, and what that product means.  What are its attributes, and amenities?  What is the brand? What are the core values of the company, and how it defines that brand?  A host of questions.  You might think it too much for our employees, but they have as much stake in our companies as others.  It is after all their job, like ours, on the line.

Never turn away from an opportunity, even if it is clouded in the mist of uncertainty.

Value cannot be realized unless we are in tune with every facet of our business, every function, and every process.  Product and services.  Even the human element has value.  It is afterall the interaction in our industry that makes or breaks a deal.

 

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Infinity figurines from iheartinfinity.com

 

 

 

 

 

Perceived value is a point of view.  Perceived value is a constant in the nature of our lives.  Children know this.  They can determine value quite readily without even asking.  They know the difference.  It astounds me that my ten-year old nephew can rattle off the advantages and disadvantages of different Infinity Characters for his XBOX game as we shop for figurines to play with.  He hasn’t quite caught the concept of budget yet, but hey he is only ten years old and value has a different meaning.

And that means value to us all changes over time with our lifestyle and progression along our life span.

How do we know the changes?  We ask the right questions.  We have to gain information, exchange it with our customers.  My nephew is constantly scouring YouTube for videos about his favorite games and characters.  I am sure he has heated debates with his friends over the games that each of them plays.  He’s a sponge.  And maybe that is the lesson all of us that strive to work in this industry need to remember.  Seek and find, soak up and digest information.  Analyze and also, just let it be.  Let it incubate, and watch what happens.  Opportunities to act may not be readily apparent, but if we don’t watch and listen, we won’t see it coming.  We won’t have that moment.

And that leads into the concept of ‘Moment of Truth’ in tourism, hospitality.

Over the course of that progression, before, during and after stages of decision-making, we can create and fulfill those moments of truth.  Where perception is validated.  Where the benefits of doing something have diminished the cost to a negligible register that people will act.  We want to convert interest to use.  We want to convert curiosity.  We want people to walk through our doors and eventually return.  We want to create loyalty.

So value is something measurable and not.  We can’t read people’s minds or dive into the heart of their perceptions without asking the right questions.  And we can’t be afraid of asking those questions.  A good manager asks the right questions.  A great manager questions those questions, and takes risks to find better questions.  Sometimes it isn’t about the answers.  It is about those questions that drive deep into the heart of something and opens the all the doors.

 

 

Daily Prompt: Promises in tourism

Daily Prompt: Promises in tourism
Moment of Truth
Moment of Truth

When I begin classes, I have to revisit the tourism business environment.  I explain that the drivers of that system are information, money and promises.  Promises are paramount in meeting the expectations and wants of the consumer.

A destination’s marketing organization as well as individuals within the infrastructure, can paint this rosy picture, and beautifully wrap up a package of potential.  They can set the price, design the products, and wait for the phone to ring or chirp of an in-box email with a processed receipt.  They can actively seek out and sell their destination attributes far and wide, especially in today’s global environment.

Working behind the scenes, that may be known and unknown, expressed, or implied, even assumed is the vague and concrete form of promises.  The action is an exchange.  Communication is vital for understanding.  Miscommunication can mean disaster.

And yet there is undefinable aspect of promises and that has to do with expectations–point of view, point of reality of each individual tourist.  Quality and quantity, value mean something different to everyone.  And therefore, it is hard to measure, hard to understand, hard to define value for each individual.

The only concrete is in the written terms to any agreement, and we all know we should read that fine print.  Ask that question to gain knowledge.  But there are unwritten promises executed every day.  Usually this in the interaction between human beings.

What we want in tourism is to have the guest return to our destination.  Promises are made throughout the guest cycle–before, during and after.  If we as host, do not live up to those promises articulated, and implied, the probability of return diminishes with each negative incident.

Therefore, promises are important to create loyalty and competitive advantage.  They are our moment of truth that distinguishes us from others.  We cannot survive without them or the partnerships they create.

via Daily Prompt: Promises