The different scope of attractions

The different scope of attractions

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Is an event an attraction?  Is something like the Edinburgh Military Tattoo an attraction?  Are the Olympics?  The varying scopes of attractions.

Attractions can be the prime motivation for travel to a destination.  They can be a secondary reason for travel or as a stopover.  How many have navigated Route 66 in the US, only to stop over and visit some of the many curiosities along the way.

Time is relative.  It can span a good amount or very little.  The reasons for any visitation depends on the individual or market segment.

Who owns the attraction?  Who is the governing body that manages the attraction?  This may dictate prices or fees for entry.  What is on offer or not?  Will it be profitable or non-profit.

PICT1876Attractions can be classified as having various degrees of permanency.  Are they a permanent fixture in the landscape? Or is it just a building, that the exhibits are the attraction and can be moved from one place to another.

The Olympics and the Military Tattoo have a short duration, and can be moved from one place to another.  They are events.  Though there is some permanency by fixing it within Edinburgh.  The concept of Military Tattoo can exist in other cities, but there is only one Edinburgh (Scotland) Military Tattoo.

34E13A3A-71E5-4822-9C27-893069022A78But an attraction such as the National Football Hall of Fame has both fixed and movable permanency.  The exhibits are the attraction and can be moved if they outgrow their current housing.  The building, though a wonderful piece of architecture, is permanent, but can be repurposed if necessary.

So, attractions can be classified by the various degrees or scopes. I have just touched on a few here, and yes, they can be a matrix of complexity.

Complexity in that they can have scopes of permanency, cultural, and type of facilities.  That leads into the discussion of how do we measure success.  A question for another day.

Using video in Development of Tourist Attractions…

Using video in Development of Tourist Attractions…

Well, this winter has been the worst so far for me living in the north of center.  I haven’t seen this much snow since I was a child in rural southwestern Pennsylvania.  Those winters were brutal (see slide show).  North of center also has its brutal winters, just like back home.  But not this bad that university cancelled classes for a week, and some.  So, what do you do to keep the students progressing along when you have ‘snow’ days?  Videos and recorded lectures.

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Prime opportunity to test my idea of using Jurassic Park, Jurassic World and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom in my Development of Tourist Attractions.  I can hear the ‘whys’ from here.  Well, the video illustrates the concept of development from the first movie.

Sir Richard Attenborough as John Hammond
Sir Richard Attenborough as John Hammond in the original Jurassic Park (c) 1993 All rights reserved

John Hammond (portrayed by the late Sir Richard Attenborough) had this brilliant idea to develop and open a ‘theme’ park for his now non-extinct dinosaurs. The opening minutes to Jurassic Park has Hammond convincing the other title characters to come and put their stamp of approval on his park. They are after all paleontologist and this is their expertise. Apparently, safety issues for the insurance companies are delaying the park’s opening. In John Hammond’s eyes, this park is a good thing.

Yet, how do I use it for my class?  Well, students are asked to watch the film, scrutinize it against their knowledge about tourism, tourism development and attraction management.  The main question–Is this park or its current inception, successful?  Could it be successful as it is designed from a tourism point of view?

Tourism Umbrella
Tourism Umbrella Walker, 4th Edition, 2006 Pearson; Fig 1.1

Are the elements of the tourism umbrella developed?  What is the degree of value chain apparent?  What about carrying capacity?  What about value?  And more.  All valid questions to ask when considering success.  How did Disney and the Disney company build and manage successful theme parks?

Fast forward to Jurassic World from 2015.  A long twenty-two years have passed and the first rendition of the park has given way to a realized attraction.

Making of Main Street in Jurassic World (see the full realized version of Main Street Here).  The young lads have made it to the island via air travel and boat, they are staying at a Hilton and have been given an RFID bracelet from their Aunt Claire.  There are restaurants along main street, souvenir shops, and the park is peppered with different rides and amusements to entertain the whole family.  Personally, I would have loved to pet the baby dinosaurs in the petting zoo.

We are taken behind the scenes and learn about the ‘success’ of the theme park when Claire is introduced in the movie.  As she explains, revenue continues to climb, but operating costs are starting to exceed revenue capture.  Shareholders are demanding a return on their investment.  The consumers or tourist aren’t ‘impressed with dinosaurs’ anymore.  Doesn’t mean that the park isn’t trying to listen to their consumers.  They know the tourist want ‘bigger, better, louder–more teeth.”  So, R&D or asset development saunters in with uncovering and ‘building’ dinos to the consumer’s wants.  As the movie progresses, things go drastically wrong with their latest and greatest asset.  The Indominus Rex sets off a chain reaction that destroys the park and injures, kills a lot of people (See for yourself).

The students did pretty well identifying the umbrella.  Some went so far as to question the safety and security of the different renditions of the parks.  This is testing their ability to see past the obvious.  Critically analyze from a management standpoint what the park did or didn’t do.  My biggest question left that some hinted at but not explicitly identified was–Why did they have to develop more assets?  Why not utilize the other management process for the park?  (I know it’s a movie, they needed something more drastic for a story line.)  But really, what about the other functions of management?

The Business Environment
Illustrates the three internal forces that drive business–organizing, planning and control.

Under planning, managers can re-envision the marketing function.  Why not package the park and its core activities into unique offerings?  Create value by another means other than dinosaur development.  A hint of this was discussed by several students.  This also begs the question of sustainability and carrying-capacity.  Did the park reach a point where the functions of management entered into a detrimental phase?  That something negative was about to happen.  As illustrated by the image above, the tourism business environment, communication was seriously lacking.  This leads to the belief that even though for all outward appearances Jurassic World was a successful and profitable enterprise, the measurement of that success wasn’t completely positive.

This leads then into our discussion in class for this week concerning their project and mid-term; the development of criteria in which to judge success.  As part of their project, they have to develop five (5) criteria and its subsequent variable to judge their attraction.  We utilize the Best Destinations: The Gold Standards: Proposed Best Destinations Evaluation Criteria and Standards as well as other peer-reviewed journal articles.  I may extend the use of these videos into this lecture.

How do we judge attractions successful?

How do we judge attractions successful?
The Magic Kingdom, 1977
The Magic Kingdom, 1977

We are passed the mid-way point through the semester. Students should be digging deep now to start on their projects to have them finished in the time allowed.  Their mid-term paper will be focused on developing two of their five criteria to evaluate their chosen attractions.  The criteria are based on several sources, notably from International Tourism Studies–“Best Destinations: The Gold Standards: Proposed Best Destinations Evaluation Criteria and Standards.”

Criteria are developed from their ten identifiers:

The 10 As of Successful Tourism Destinations (Morrison, 2013)

o Awareness: Related to tourists’ level of knowledge about the destination and is influenced by the amount and nature of the information they receive.
o Attractiveness: Number and geographic scope of appeal of the destination’s attractions comprise this attribute.
o Availability: Determined by the ease with which bookings and reservations can be made for the destination, and the number of booking and reservation channels available.
o Access: Convenience of getting to and from the destination, as well as moving around within the destination.
o Appearance: Measures the impressions that the destination makes on tourists, both when they first arrive and then throughout their stays in the destination.
o Activities: Extent of the array of activities available to tourists within the destination.
o Assurance: The safety and security of the destination for tourists.
o Appreciation: The feeling of the levels of welcome and hospitality.
o Action: The availability of a long-term tourism plan and a marketing plan for tourism are some of the required actions.
o Accountability: The evaluation of performance by the destination management organization (DMO).

They need to identify their criteria, state the definition by Morrison, and then interpret what that means.  Then derive variables, statements or questions from their research information about that criteria.  For instance, Attractiveness stipulates an appeal.  Appeal means you like something.  You found something agreeable.  We settled on a definition and interpretation.  And so I posed several questions.  Why do tourist like a destination or attraction?  We worked through this criteria in class as an example and utilized Disney.  Since most had visited Disney World in Florida, I asked them, as tourist, what did you like about Disney?  We gained a lot of different answers–location, climate, nice employees, variety of attractions, etc.  I asked what didn’t you like about Disney?  A few more questions were asked, and we teased out a host of verbs and adjectives.

Those verbs and adjectives become the variables that describe the criteria.  One student came after class to discuss it further and I rather liked how she constructed statements and questions surrounding those variables.  One that stood out was: “Does this attraction leave a lasting impression?”  As part of the project they need to articulate these variables, and what they mean from their point of view.  I don’t have insight into their thoughts without it.  My crystal ball is broken and I can’t read their minds.  I asked her what do you mean by impression.  Fifteen minutes later she had a good handle on what she meant.  And we were able to find more information for her to digest, namely visitor surveys and other statistical information already published about the attraction.

Within tourism, people travel to destinations because there is something to see or do.  Therefore, success hinges on the developing worthwhile attractions.  Something that will attract tourist time and time again.  Hence, why Disney is so successful.  They are constantly changing, updating to trends and taste, to their movies and interests.

More to attractions than meets the eye…

More to attractions than meets the eye…
Gettysburg Civil War Monument
Mom on her honeymoon at Gettysburg Civil War National Park

Attractions have a lot of complicated parts, both intangible and tangible. They have a wider impact that many realize.  A whole mess of questions in a complicated world.

Attractions evolve from the three environments:  socio-cultural, economic, and physical (natural and man-made).  They take many forms and trying to define them can be a delicate journey.  They are a composite of activities that the tourist can partake in and use. Attractions can ‘attract’ a host of visitors, but more than likely it is not homogeneous.  Something that can’t be generalized across all markets.  More than likely, a niche market will be their primary source of revenues.

Motivation is tricky to decipher and study.  The reasons drawing, pushing and pulling tourist to a site is as particular to one person as another.  Case in point my mother and our annual trips to historic sites.  Deep down I don’t think she liked visiting Williamsburg or Gettysburg or other historical site.  I don’t know.  She’s never been a fan of hot weather, preferring spring and fall for travel.  The beach to the oppressive heat and humidity of the countryside.  Maybe I don’t know what she likes.  And therein lies the conundrum of tourist researchers.  Do we know who our visitors are, and what they like?  Do we really know what attractions to build or create for tourists?

Mom at Atlantic City
Mom at Atlantic City

Attractions have many purposes.  They are a composite of a host of activities and services that cater to a varied population of tourists.  Take away any resource within that matrix of services and the system fragments.  That fragmentation can be induced by tourist as well as the industry itself.  Attractions are part of a greater value chain.

Take away one and suffering occurs.  Take away the primary reason for tourist to visit, and the whole system suffers.  The impacts are far-reaching.  The multiplier effect drops in function and revenues do not circulate through the many layers.

Once an attraction changes, matures, stagnates or declines, tourist motivations will shift and change.  They will choose something else.  And then the area in which it is embedded spirals downward and declines.  And unless this erosion is stopped, halted, the host community will continue to suffer.  There will be no reason to go to the area.  Thus, schools can’t be built or remodeled, hospitals will close, services will pull out of the area leaving a shell of a community.

I’ve seen it first hand.  My hometown in Pennsylvania suffers from the decline and closure of industry.  Relying on tourism for most of its dollars.

Johnstown, PA
View from the Incline Plane of Johnstown, PA

Johnstown, PA is an old town, settled in 1770.  The only reason people would have a reason to visit there now is because of a natural disaster back in 1889.  The Great Flood was the largest man-made disaster up until 9/11. The event killed 2200+ people and leveled the prosperous steel town.  Now, since steel has pulled out, the city is a shell of its former self.  Still a beautiful place to live, but survival hinges on the National Monument to the Flood as well as several key events throughout the year.

Thunder in the Valley is a motorcycle rally that happens every June.  Last year, 2016 was one of the best turnouts because of the beautiful weather and increase in services available.  As reported in the Tribune:

When the weather cooperates, the four-day event has drawn as many as 200,000 people to the area – and this weekend was likely no exception, said Lisa Rager, executive director of the Greater Johnstown/Cambria County Convention & Visitors Bureau.

Motorcylces line Johnstown, PA streets during Thunder in the Valley
Motorcycles line Johnstown, PA streets during Thunder in the Valley

That is a lot of people traveling to a small town in southwestern Pennsylvania for three or more days.  To a town that has limited resources to host 200,000 people over three days.  Maybe it does.  Maybe I don’t know the exact carrying capacity of the area or the extent of services.  Yet, think of the revenues generated from a host of sources.  How many jobs are created just for that weekend?  How much revenue is generated from event sales?  And then that revenue is circulated through the community.

Budweiser Clydesdales
Budweiser Clydesdale at Thunder in the Valley

Therefore, attractions are classified as something that generates some form of revenue.  They sell an entrance fee or cluster a host of services around it to generate revenue.  Take it away and revenues are lost.  Some people do not understand that concept.  What the community loses.

And sometimes that happens when motivations shift over time and choice is directed elsewhere.

Sometimes we lose attractions through other means.  How will the Caribbean rebuild after the devastating hurricanes?  How much will the islands alone lose from the loss of cruise ship revenues?  A host of questions.

A loss of revenue for the catchment area means a loss of revenues to circulate through the system.  A loss of future development.  Attractions can be the reason some businesses are drawn to the area.  This past summer I was at home during the annual Thunder.  One of my favorite motorcycle companies had heard about Thunder and was making its first appearance.

Ducati Logo
Ducati Logo ©Ducati

Ducati had come to town.  I would have loved to have visited the Rally but personal plans got in the way.  Yet, with such a famous brand drawn to this event, others followed.  The weather dampened the festival for the first day, but more than made up for it the last two, giving Ducati and others the chance to showcase their products.  I’m sure Harley Davidson enjoyed the friendly competition.  Throughout the 19 years this event has been held in Johnstown, it has evolved to what it is today.  An attraction that is just not for bikers.  It caters to a host of different types of tourists.  And that is important if the event is to continue.

I try not to be political in class or here.  But I can’t go without addressing certain issues effecting tourism today.  The destruction of certain attractions must be discussed if we are having an honest conversation about tourism.  The recent destruction of Civil War Monuments and the potential for more changes in that landscape.  Try to see and envision all sides.  Try to understand the impacts of all points of reality.  The total effect this has on the host community.

Dad at the Alabamians Memorial at Gettysburg during honeymoon.
Dad at the Alabamians Memorial at Gettysburg during honeymoon.

Tourism has a history.  Tourism exist in time and space.  The reasons for attractions and construction of attractions is particular to each stakeholder given that time and space.  The reasons for travel have varied through the generations that have engaged in the activity.  It has its positive and negative connotations. Good and bad.  The tourism landscape has countless stories to tell to explain the history of civilization.  Tourism is an action and behavior.  Tourists engage with a variety of landscapes.  Host communities rely on tourists for revenues.  If the main reason for travel is gone, people will shift their actions and behaviors.  They will go elsewhere.

We are all stewards of this landscape.  This landscape needs all sides to understand the implications to all three environments and participants.  All voices must be heard and considered.

A host of questions must be asked before action is taken.  We must be sympathetic and empathetic to the multiplier effect.  And the multiplier effect is not just revenues any more.  It is more.  Again, I stress that all voices must be heard and considered.

Location, Location, Location…

Location, Location, Location…
Ford's Theatre
Ford’s Theatre in Washington, DC

I have lived in a host of different cities, states and one country.  The depth of knowledge about those locations various with experience.  I love to get out and talk to people, and I’ve met some interesting people along the way.  I love to explore and more than likely will get lost.  I always find my way back.  Every experiences brings a whole new set of learning.

Another year is upon us here at Stout, and I’m teaching Development of Tourism Attractions, Convention Meeting Planning and People Process Culture.  The former course expands and expounds on concepts learned in the Principles of Tourism, extending it into the heart of the three environments–socio-cultural, economic and natural/man-made as well motivation, and planning.

It peels back the layers of tourism.  Tourism is an act of doing something and depends on the viewpoint in which you view it or peel back the layers.  There are tangible and intangible elements that are part of this dynamic process, and we need to know why some destinations and their attractions are more successful than others.  As leaders or managers of the future, we will be part of that success and/or failure.  What we do, when we do it, could be a defining moment.  (For those of you in tourism, remember the mantra.)

At the heart of any attraction is a motivation.

Echoes of those reasons why people travel to a destination and its attractions, percolates through my mind, and I’m sure others.

“Something I always wanted to see.”

“It is on my bucket list.”

But that is from a customer point of view.  What about the others?

Why did Disney decide to buy up a large mass of swamp land and orange groves in the middle of Florida to create Disney World?

Why place it there?  Why create something in the middle of no where, and hope that people come?

Begs the question posed in A Field of Dreams:  “If you build it, will them come?”

The process of building attractions is long and arduous.  It takes time to build attractions from concept of the idea to opening.  Disney World was conceived as a supplement to Disneyland in 1955 and opened in 1971.  During that time of development, Walt Disney died unexpectantly in 1966.  Disney World and especially Epcot could have died right there on the table.  But it didn’t, and more on that later.  Yet, that is a long time for an attraction to be built.  Some rise in less time, and close just as fast.  The Internet is peppered with a host of attractions that opened and closed quickly because they couldn’t sustain numbers or creativity.  Walt Disney World has several areas that have been closed and abandoned because they weren’t as popular as they once were.

Visit to Disney World, 1977
From left to right, Mom, sister, me and brother at Walt Disney World, 1977

So, this hints at one aspect of motivation and decision-making.

Even leadership (Waves at my PPC group, bringing them into the conversation).

Your stakeholder’s needs change over time.  All of them.

But who are your stakeholders you ask, besides customers.

  1. Customers
  2. Employees (all levels)
  3. Governments
  4. Financial
  5. Host Community
  6. Others (that arm-chair traveler that hasn’t even made a decision yet, but is bombarded with a mountains of information both by word of mouth, and through other distribution channels and has an interest)

Their needs and wants will change over time as their lives change.  It can be short or long-term.

Disney World’s Epcot Center is now going through a major renovation.  The original vision of Epcot is a far cry than what Walt had in mind.  That vision was transformed because he wasn’t there and those that came after, nixed it in the butt.  Roy Disney, his brother, wasn’t the creative genius that Walt was and deferred to others.  If you read any books about Walt’s life and his company, his creative style and visions were a prime directive for the company.  To lose someone so young in their mid-60s, without a concrete succession plan, will have far reaching effects on the company.  And it did.

An attraction is just a structure.  An idea.

People make it come to life.

Caspar_David_Friedrich_-_Wanderer_above_the_sea_of_fog
Caspar_David_Friedrich_-_Wanderer_above_the_sea_of_fog

People are the resource that propel it into the future.

Even destinations and their success depends on the people who manage it, work within the boundaries, and even visit.

So, this then suggest a management/educational journey down two different paths.

At times these paths, one of tangible origins and one of intangible, coalesce and merge.  At other times, they run parallel.  And during times of stress, anxiety, and erosion, diverge.

So, we are at the precipice.  On top of the mountain and have a vista to explore.  We can see the concrete but the human element is clouded in degrees of mystery.

Let’s begin…

 

Revisiting Value Chain…

Revisiting Value Chain…

Understanding tourism goods and services can be deceiving. We can articulate that they have a tangible and intangible divergence. It is when we get into that thinking on higher and complex terms that it becomes blurred, complex and competitive. One can argue that a tourism’s tangible products cannot be consumed until the prospective tourist evaluates an intangible depiction or representation. No one can argue that more and more people are booking travel and tourism products using mobile technology 1. I am not certain that all tourist see the complex inter-relationships that exist between all sectors of our industry. Or do they even think about it. Yet, what about the students in my classes, those studying tourism. How should we envision this complexity?

cobweb

It is an intricate web of connections. Some strong, some strained, some thin filaments that aren’t as apparent as others. Murky waters indeed. As we have discussed, value is not so easily deciphered, applied or understood. But it is a value chain of products that are aligned and transformed into an experience when packaged together. Validation of the wealth of that package, tangible and intangible value, occurs with use. If we have met and exceeded expectations developed before, during and after the trip and travel process, then we have delivered on each contact point during those moments of truths. And moments of truths profoundly affect the exchange process.  If those connections are strong, those cogs in a wheel working in tandem, the industry will have a strong presence even in a highly competitive environment.  They will stand out and be a first choice among a host of consumers.

Tourism is a communication industry.

We communicate to every stakeholder that has a vested interest in our products and services. (Moment of Epiphany: That moment when something hits you, whispers in your ear of understanding…just happened. More on that later)

Communication is a constant throughout the process, even if it happens behind the scenes or we don’t think it is even occurring. Information is exchanged and processed during those moments.

What we do during those moments of interaction can be vital for capturing interest, converting interest to purchases, and then use.

We need to create linkages among all those involved in the process.

That is a value chain.

 

 


Footnotes

1. 70 travel & tourism statistics to know about in 2016 [Trends Report]by Lucy Fuggle

Then that begs the question…

Then that begs the question…

In my previous post, I discussed why we study tourism goods and services, and as I sat at home last night, began to wonder, if I should not talk about my other classes, and their purpose.

Why study tourism, development of tourist attractions, and international meeting planning?

Why study the history of tourism as well as its impacts?  Why dive deep into the nuances of our industry?  Because this is a fact of our lives.

Tourism is one of the oldest industries on the planet.  It changes and morphs, evolves with the changes to society.  It even pushes society to change given the innovation of technology.  Even dictating to other industries to innovate for us.  (Think cell phones people.  If it wasn’t for Gene Roddenberry and his idea for a Star Trek communicator, we would have our little SMART devices nor could we make reservations on them.)  So tourism is interwoven into our lives, into our DNA.  We all need and want the process, the action, and the function of tourism, because we want to have a rich and fulfilling lives.

Swissair Motelodge, 1967
The year our family went to the Montreal Expo.

 

Over winter break I returned home to Pennsylvania to see my parents and give Mom a break for taking care of my father.  While home, I dug out Dad’s old cases of slides that he has accumulated from his 86 years on this planet.  I found some early slides of our family vacations.  One I vaguely remember due to my age was the trip we made through Pennsylvania, upper state New York, and over the border to Montreal for the Montreal Expo and World’s Fair.

As I copied the slides, I tried to recall this moment in my life.  The memories are vague shapes and snippets of images.  Visions lost in the mists of my mind’s eye.  I can recall nothing of the drive, nothing of the moments in Fort Ticonderoga, nothing of the beautiful scenery.  I can see a bit of Niagara Falls, because of those darn rain coats we had to wear and the spray from the falling water.  A picnic of Kentucky Fried Chicken on our hotel room floor.  Our family had never encountered that before, and my sister begged for a picnic.  That’s it, nothing more.

But my Dad’s slides were evidence of our family outings in the time span of our lives together.

Time is a variable associated with the definition of tourism.  Questions surrounding time should be asked to understand needs and wants, to design experiences and fulfill expectations.  Time cannot be discounted in the evolution of our industry.

Yes, Swissaire Motelodge still exists, but the Swissaire brand went out of business in the 1980s.  That doesn’t seem like that long ago, but its over 30 some years.  Wow, 1967 to 2017 is a fifty year span, and the motel of my youth is still there.  Still in existence but with a different name.  The Brookside Motor Inn.  The only amenity missing is the above ground pool in the parking lot.

Brookside Motor Inn in Jay, NY
This was the former Swissaire Motelodge of 1967.

So, back to my original reason for this post. Why study these particular subjects?

Tourism is a business and like any other we need to know how it evolved.  We need to examine the footprint in a historical context as well as today.  We need to understand the impact, both positive and negative, to understand what to do now, and in the future.  We need to learn from the past so mistakes can be learned from, and its lessons utilized today and tomorrow.

We need to understand the value in all its varied forms.  The quantifiable and the qualitative essence.  For a better analogy, it is a machine, and if we don’t know how it works, how to take care of it, and sustain it for today and tomorrow, we will perish.  Our product life cycle will come to an end, and the ramifications for all parties are huge.  Loss of revenues for not only the business but the host community.  Loss of jobs, loss of incomes, loss…and that loss will multiply across other industries.  Demonstrating the inter-connectedness that tourism has within the fabric of our lives.

So that is why we study it.