Attractions have a lot of complicated parts, both intangible and tangible. They have a wider impact that many realize. A whole mess of questions in a complicated world.
Attractions evolve from the three environments: socio-cultural, economic, and physical (natural and man-made). They take many forms and trying to define them can be a delicate journey. They are a composite of activities that the tourist can partake in and use. Attractions can ‘attract’ a host of visitors, but more than likely it is not homogeneous. Something that can’t be generalized across all markets. More than likely, a niche market will be their primary source of revenues.
Motivation is tricky to decipher and study. The reasons drawing, pushing and pulling tourist to a site is as particular to one person as another. Case in point my mother and our annual trips to historic sites. Deep down I don’t think she liked visiting Williamsburg or Gettysburg or other historical site. I don’t know. She’s never been a fan of hot weather, preferring spring and fall for travel. The beach to the oppressive heat and humidity of the countryside. Maybe I don’t know what she likes. And therein lies the conundrum of tourist researchers. Do we know who our visitors are, and what they like? Do we really know what attractions to build or create for tourists?
Attractions have many purposes. They are a composite of a host of activities and services that cater to a varied population of tourists. Take away any resource within that matrix of services and the system fragments. That fragmentation can be induced by tourist as well as the industry itself. Attractions are part of a greater value chain.
Take away one and suffering occurs. Take away the primary reason for tourist to visit, and the whole system suffers. The impacts are far-reaching. The multiplier effect drops in function and revenues do not circulate through the many layers.
Once an attraction changes, matures, stagnates or declines, tourist motivations will shift and change. They will choose something else. And then the area in which it is embedded spirals downward and declines. And unless this erosion is stopped, halted, the host community will continue to suffer. There will be no reason to go to the area. Thus, schools can’t be built or remodeled, hospitals will close, services will pull out of the area leaving a shell of a community.
I’ve seen it first hand. My hometown in Pennsylvania suffers from the decline and closure of industry. Relying on tourism for most of its dollars.
Johnstown, PA is an old town, settled in 1770. The only reason people would have a reason to visit there now is because of a natural disaster back in 1889. The Great Flood was the largest man-made disaster up until 9/11. The event killed 2200+ people and leveled the prosperous steel town. Now, since steel has pulled out, the city is a shell of its former self. Still a beautiful place to live, but survival hinges on the National Monument to the Flood as well as several key events throughout the year.
Thunder in the Valley is a motorcycle rally that happens every June. Last year, 2016 was one of the best turnouts because of the beautiful weather and increase in services available. As reported in the Tribune:
When the weather cooperates, the four-day event has drawn as many as 200,000 people to the area – and this weekend was likely no exception, said Lisa Rager, executive director of the Greater Johnstown/Cambria County Convention & Visitors Bureau.
That is a lot of people traveling to a small town in southwestern Pennsylvania for three or more days. To a town that has limited resources to host 200,000 people over three days. Maybe it does. Maybe I don’t know the exact carrying capacity of the area or the extent of services. Yet, think of the revenues generated from a host of sources. How many jobs are created just for that weekend? How much revenue is generated from event sales? And then that revenue is circulated through the community.
Therefore, attractions are classified as something that generates some form of revenue. They sell an entrance fee or cluster a host of services around it to generate revenue. Take it away and revenues are lost. Some people do not understand that concept. What the community loses.
And sometimes that happens when motivations shift over time and choice is directed elsewhere.
Sometimes we lose attractions through other means. How will the Caribbean rebuild after the devastating hurricanes? How much will the islands alone lose from the loss of cruise ship revenues? A host of questions.
A loss of revenue for the catchment area means a loss of revenues to circulate through the system. A loss of future development. Attractions can be the reason some businesses are drawn to the area. This past summer I was at home during the annual Thunder. One of my favorite motorcycle companies had heard about Thunder and was making its first appearance.
Ducati had come to town. I would have loved to have visited the Rally but personal plans got in the way. Yet, with such a famous brand drawn to this event, others followed. The weather dampened the festival for the first day, but more than made up for it the last two, giving Ducati and others the chance to showcase their products. I’m sure Harley Davidson enjoyed the friendly competition. Throughout the 19 years this event has been held in Johnstown, it has evolved to what it is today. An attraction that is just not for bikers. It caters to a host of different types of tourists. And that is important if the event is to continue.
I try not to be political in class or here. But I can’t go without addressing certain issues effecting tourism today. The destruction of certain attractions must be discussed if we are having an honest conversation about tourism. The recent destruction of Civil War Monuments and the potential for more changes in that landscape. Try to see and envision all sides. Try to understand the impacts of all points of reality. The total effect this has on the host community.
Tourism has a history. Tourism exist in time and space. The reasons for attractions and construction of attractions is particular to each stakeholder given that time and space. The reasons for travel have varied through the generations that have engaged in the activity. It has its positive and negative connotations. Good and bad. The tourism landscape has countless stories to tell to explain the history of civilization. Tourism is an action and behavior. Tourists engage with a variety of landscapes. Host communities rely on tourists for revenues. If the main reason for travel is gone, people will shift their actions and behaviors. They will go elsewhere.
We are all stewards of this landscape. This landscape needs all sides to understand the implications to all three environments and participants. All voices must be heard and considered.
A host of questions must be asked before action is taken. We must be sympathetic and empathetic to the multiplier effect. And the multiplier effect is not just revenues any more. It is more. Again, I stress that all voices must be heard and considered.